Some thoughts on Gravity and Newton’s Laws

Over the past few weeks I’ve been thinking about gravity and the various laws that Newton proposed.  One of the main questions I have pertains to the equation for F (force) which is F=ma and the so-called law of universal gravitation which is:

F1 = F2 = G⋅m1 x m2 / r(squared)

And this is put into normal language as:

The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

meaning, if the mass increases then the product increases.  For example, as a mass accelerates the value of F will increase.  This can be seen in the extreme example of a mass that approaches the speed of light;  as it approaches, it’s mass approaches an infinite value.  The difficulty with this concept (as it is only a concept without any empirical evidence) is Newton’s 3nd law which states that “for every force there is an equal and opposite force”.

If you take the 2nd law and apply it to any accelerating mass, you increase the total amount of force which also an increase in energy (e=mc2).

Now if you take the law of universal gravitation (as shown above), and apply the 2nd law to m2, the total force between the two objects will increase.  you can ignore the increase of r(radius) since the increase in radius is insignificant relative to the size of m1.  In other words, an object like a rocket could not possibly launch if gravity acts according to the prevailing theory since the acceleration adds to the objects total energy (as shown above).  By increasing energy you increase the force between m1 and m2 with a “…a force that is proportional to the product of the two masses” and with equal force (as per the 2nd law).  Therefore for every pound of thrust an equal amount of force is brought to bear between the rocket and the earth.

This would also apply to anything accelerating away from the center of the earth (ie. rapidly raising my hand above my head).  In other words, gravity should be acting like a brake against the accelerating body.  To “break free” (think of an inverted pendulum flywheel) of the gravitational force, an object would have to accelerate with a force greater than m1 * acceleration.   Therefore, if we take two equal masses (m3 = m4) and accelerate one of them (m4) it would require the second mass (m4) to accelerate at a greater value than m3 * acceleration.  Essentially, it is an application of e=mc2.  This a far better explanation as to why the mass of an object increases as it approaches the speed of light – the mass itself is not increasing but the affect of gravity increases proportionally to the accelerated mass  therefore the effective mass increases.

The great irony here is that this makes gravity all but impossible since any object on the surface of a globe (ie. Earth) would be held fast against the surface.  Anything pushing against gravity would encounter massive (no pun intended) resistance (like blood flow, plant growth, etc) to the point where no life could form.   Nor could objects be buoyant.  An object floating on the ocean surface is essentially accelerating away from the center of the earth (until it finds equilibrium at the ocean surface).  The gravity of the Earth is far greater then the total outward thrust of the buoyant object (ie. air inflated beach ball).  In a nutshell, buoyancy would be completely overwhelmed by gravity.  As well, the lift experience by commercial airplanes would also be insufficient to overcome gravity.

However, no matter how reasonable this line of thinking is, many gravity apologists will simply drag out their favorite solution:

Einstein – The grand-daddy of excuses

If we push aside Newton for the moment a look at what Einstein proposed, we are actually in a less favorable possible (if you believe in gravity).  Firstly, Space-Time needs to bend or be distorted to create this magical affect.  Looking at the area around an object (like a planet), we see it is spherical.  The so-called gravity “well” needs to encompass the entire planet not just a portion underneath.  I talked about this in a previous post.  The point being, the distortion of space time is not like this:

It needs to be an gravity sphere.  So what about the distortion around objects on the earths surface?  Is this not what causes gravity?  Does space-time wrap around a cube or a oddly shaped stone?

The explanation is somewhat specious:

Bodies with spatial extent

If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses), then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. In the limit, as the component point masses become “infinitely small”, this entails integrating the force (in vector form, see below) over the extents of the two bodies.  

In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object’s mass were concentrated at a point at its centre.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies.)’s_law_of_universal_gravitation

Right.  This explanation effectively reduces all objects to single point masses and runs gravitational vectors between two bodies.  It’s really a rather grotesque idea.  Then the gravity within a body is nullified since all the internal objects of a “single mass” are counted as one:

  • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above).

  • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. That is, the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there, on the point at r0, cancel each other out.

As a consequence, for example, within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere.

So now we have a hollow uniform body and only the surface itself has gravity.  So if all the gravitational forces are cancelled out as per the explanation above, then all the gravitational forces most somehow come from the surface.  How is that even possible? Geometrically, the math flattens out the sphere by pushing everything to the surface so the concept of a larger mass having greater density and therefore greater gravity is expunged and we are left with flat plane – in essence.

So does the math coincide with reality?  If the math says all the gravity is on the surface, then is it really on the surface?  I mean really only on the surface.  If yes, then how could a surface, no matter how big, generate a sufficiently potent gravity field as to warp space-time?


Action-at-a-distance as an article of faith

To come full circle…it seems to me that to accept gravity as real you also have to accept “action-at-a-distance”(  It is obvious that action-at-a-distance (other than to the most ardent believers) is a tenuous concept that has zero empirical evidence ( and instead relies upon metaphysical arguments and conjecture.

To claim that any object orbits due to the gravitational attraction of bodies is speculating and is attributing special, hidden and unverifiable qualities to matter.  In essence, gravity cannot be proven since it can’t be shown to not exist.  For example, I can solve the buoyancy of a balloon without the need to include gravity.  Volume, differences in density and temperature will give an exact value for lift.  However, someone could simply argue that since gravity is inherent within all objects (“the conspiring nature”), you don’t need to include it; therefore, I can give gravity any arbitrary value and the results will match (ie. the total amount of lift will be the same).  Try it yourself – just solve a buoyancy equation but give gravity a value of 1 or ignore it altogether.  If you think about it, how is terminal velocity, buoyancy and density any different than acceleration due to gravity (ignoring action-at-a-distance)?

In fact, all equations that have a gravity function can be removed without altering the real outcome.  However, the only equations which will not work are objects in orbit that require action-at-a-distance.  An orbiting body like the ISS requires a continuous change in direction.  The change in direction involves a net zero force.  So just like the schwarzschild radius can divide by zero ( a change in direction requiring zero force requires a complete suspension of disbelief (   Honestly, how can something act on an external body with zero force?  It doesn’t matter if you qualify it as a *net zero force* or not.  The result is zero…meaning no force.  This was the greatest achievement of Newton – to separate the relationship between force and motion.  But can anyone really claim that this has any reality?  To do that, you *have* to believe in action-at-a-distance *and* that a change in direction is possible *without* force.  Other than orbiting bodies (which in themselves are not verifiable), is there any empirical evidence of this?

Many have convinced themselves of the validity of such an action because the implications are too devastating to consider – What if gravity is a false premise?  But it’s impossible to prove a negative.  One would then have to start questioning and challenging the supposed authorities on these matters.  Most of science can still move ahead by removing gravity from their equations.  However, one particular science cannot.  I will let you guess which one that is.  What would happen if an orbiting body is impossible?  What does that say about the information that we are presented with everyday?

What if you started testing and thinking with your own eyes and mind?  Ideas that were previously blocked from consideration might become viable.  But this requires a person to recognize that they believe something as a matter of faith and not because it is self-evident or a testable hypothesis.  We are all subject to articles of faith (even atheists).  If a person doesn’t think that they are subject to those articles then woe to them.  And to argue that the presence of the moon is proof of gravity merely reinforces the idea of that article of faith.  The moon and its motions are not fully understood and anyone claiming they do understand it are being intellectually dishonest at best or deliberately misleading at worst.

Forces – Where do they originate?

If you open any physics text book you will notice the use of the word force (as in F=ma).  However, what is being described in this equation is not a force at all but a relationship between two other measurements.  The variable ‘m’ or ‘mass’ is a measurement which requires its own force and ‘a’ or ‘acceleration’ which also requires it’s own force.  The problem is in trying to define mass and acceleration.

These definitions refer back to each other in a self-referential manner.  For example, one definition (there are many) says:

In physics, the property of matter that measures its resistance to acceleration.

So mass, in this instance, refers to acceleration and acceleration is defined as:

Mechanics. the time rate of change of velocity with respect to magnitude or direction; the derivative of velocity with respect to time.
Now acceleration refers to velocity and velocity is defined as:
Mechanics. the time rate of change of position of a body in a specified direction.
Now if velocity is defined as above, then in no way has any force been defined or measured since we are simply left with ‘time’ which is also a relationship between what was before and what is now.  No forces have been directly measured.  If we then look at the concept of ‘gravity‘, we are left working with the mass of two object in relation to radius of those objects.  Again, there is no inherent force in the ‘radius’ of an object and as we’ve seen above, the mass of an object has no inherent force.  Therefore, ‘gravity‘ cannot be a force but only a definition of a relationship between objects.
So the question that arises is: What is a force and where does it originate?
Forces have their origin in the hidden (occult) or unmeasured worlds.  As previously written, hidden forces are real and have a direct, meaningful and potent affect on our lives.  As Goethe’s Faust says:
In thy Naught I hope to find the All.
This brings us to the most difficult of places.  We are crossing over into the threshold of the ‘naught’ and most are terrified to venture there.  We have ask ourselves why it is so uncomfortable to look into a region that is our true origin?  In most cases we have been conditioned to seek the ‘hidden’ through authoritative paths (ie. religion) or to dismiss it completely (ie. scientism).   But why have we been ‘directed’ into these paths?  That is an even more complicate answer.