Falsification of the Universal Law of Gravity

Note: Just as my previous post, I had to fix some errors in my formulas.  However, the conclusions are the same.

As a follow up to my previous post, I wanted to take a closer look at the gravitational constant of “Big G”.  Upon examination, I found that though Newton used Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, the relationship between them is rather ambiguous.  For example, Kepler’s laws deal with the velocity of a planet around the sun with respect to time – meaning: The time it takes to complete an orbit and the area covered is proportional.

There is no force involved since he was not concerned with the mass of the objects.  The time it takes for a planet to revolve around the sun increases with distance, hence his proportional law of 1/r².  But, again, this has nothing to do with a force acting on the object, rather just the proportions of the ellipse and the time taken to traverse it.

Newton, however, was completely concerned about the mass of an object.  He took the proportions with respect to time and converted it into a force: Gravity.  By replacing the proportions with mass he removed time from the equation.

The gravitational constant specifically is:

6.67 ×10−11 m3⋅kg−1⋅s−2

or

6.67 x 10−11 m3/kg/s²

It is a constant that is applied over time as an acceleration but time is not factored in.  An acceleration over time, by it’s very definition, is an increase in velocity over time.  You can’t have a change in velocity without a change in time.

The equation for the “law of gravity” is:

{\displaystyle F=G{\frac {m_{1}\times m_{2}}{r^{2}}}\,.}

However, all force equations require 3 attributes to comply with reality and no variable can be isolated:

  1. Vector
  2. Magnitude
  3. Time

The classic force equation F=ma violates this requirement since it excludes the time attribute.  Math is a descriptor language so it must describe reality not abstractions.  For example, a 4,000kg car accelerating at 10 m/s² for 10 seconds cannot be described by the equations F=ma since it excludes the change in time while it was accelerating.  All it can describe is an abstracted force not a rational one.

Velocity, acceleration, force and momentum all violate these basic requirements since they only include partial attributes.  For example:

a = Δv / Δt  – must include a magnitude to describe reality – ma = Δv / Δt · m

v = d/t – must include a magnitude to describe reality – mv = d/t · m

F = ma – must include time to describe reality –  ΔtF = maΔt

p = mv – must include time to describe reality – tp = mvt

So we must write the “law of gravity” as:

ΔtF = maΔt = GmM/r² · Δt = Δvm

This translates into a significant problem for gravity since the velocity or force involved must increase with respect to time.  Neither the mass nor the acceleration due to gravity changes, just the velocity and the time the acceleration is applied.  A secondary issue is that the acceleration will increase as the distance between them decreases.  In the case of gravity, the acceleration never stops since it is supposedly inherent to matter.

No object could ever separate from any other object of any mass if time is applied.  We neither observer nor experience what should be happening which is a self-evident falsification of the universal law of gravity.  Simply stated: Gravity is Dead.

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Gravity: The Baron Munchausen of Forces

 BaronMunch

The Missing force in gravity

Two bodies that are interacting require “something” to push against. For example, in a classic tug-o-war there are two teams pulling against each other using a rope. However, for it to work, they must push against the ground not air or space in order to pull. The classic F=ma equation usually cited does not give the fulcrum from which each body is pushing against. They can’t push against air or space while pulling at the rope. Hence, there is no “equal and opposite” reaction since there is nothing to react against. There is no push to the pull.

Essentially we have an equation that has the earmarks of Baron Munchausen

Tug-O-War2

Centripetal force is not gravity.  This is a common misconception.  Gravity is an independent force due to the mass of the object.  People usually link things together which are not related. For example, angular momentum gives rise to the centripetal and centrifugal forces. The centripetal force is “pulling” at the the centrifugal force and the centrifugal force is “pulling” against the centripetal force and gravity at a rate of ω²r, where ω is the angular speed (=linear speed/r) but it does not cause gravity.

In other words, they have to subtract the emergent centripetal and centrifugal forces from the force of gravity to get the resultant force.  For example, a 72kg person will exert 2.36N of centrifugal force at the equator while gravity exerts (pulls) 705N of force giving a resultant force of 702.64N. But for gravity to pull it must push against something at that’s what’s missing. The earth must be fixed in space to pull.

The only thing that gravity can push against is space and space must have zero mass. For space would need sufficient mass to resist the motion of any and all celestial bodies (galaxies, suns, planets, etc). Therefore, space would no longer be space but mass. So the conundrum for an astrophysicist is the necessity of space and the simultaneous necessity for space to have mass.  They are mutually exclusive.

For this reason, gravity violates Newton’s 3rd law.

Spacetime, curvature and Relativity nonsense

Since gravity is a function of mass, any supposed curvature of space is the result of the mass of the object not the other way around.  Also, curvature of space around an object is impossible. This would require the supposed “fabric” of space is pulled inward towards the object. What exactly is it pulling on? Space by it’s very definition is empty.  How can a force pull on emptiness? Even if gravity was granted such magical powers, it would then, by necessity, require space to have mass and if it has mass then it is not space.  As well, time is an abstraction and a force can’t pull on an abstraction.

Even if we grant gravity the magical powers to pull on emptiness it still needs to push against something to pull on something.  We get into a circular argument where the space around the earth is being pulled on while simultaneously it is resisting the motion of the earth itself. Hence the allusion to Baron Munchausen pulling himself up by his own pigtails.

The Inertial mass required to fix the earth in space would negate space itself. So regardless of which theory of gravity is evoked, it violates Newton’s 3rd law.

Density/Buoyancy and the falsification of Gravity

Density and buoyancy are a function of the differences between the mass of objects. For example, an object more dense than air will drop to the ground due to the displacement of the surrounding air. Air under compression can push against a heavier object since the air is not being displaced. The mass of an object is also distinct from the force of gravity.

Here we get to the crux of the problem? If a 72kg person is standing on the earth’s surface, they should experience a constant acceleration of 9.8 m/s/s. But this acceleration does not stop just because they are standing on the earth’s surface. Their “weight” will only be 72kg (702.64N) for one second. What happens at the 2nd second? Their “weight” would double since in the 1st second it is 702.64N + 702.64N in the 2nd second (the “weight” of a person in free fall is zero). In other words, we should all be compressed piles of mush. All mass should be pulled relentlessly into the centre of the earth. Therefore, since the acceleration due to gravity is not what we observe, it must be shown as having been falsified.

Other celestial observations, like the gravity bending light, are non-sensical since the bending of light would require either space (which is empty and massless) or light to have mass. Neither of these have mass. The motions of celestial bodies (planets, suns, comet, galaxies, etc) are equally non-sensical since they require gravity and since gravity has been shown to be falsified, the motions of the lights in the sky are due to other phenomenon.

And finally, outer space, planets, comets, etc are all constructs of the theory of gravity. Without gravity they fall apart.  Welcome to the flat earth.

There is an alternative to gravity that has been elegantly presented by Ken Wheeler: https://archive.org/details/magnetism1small

Simple experiment to show Earth is either Spinning or Stationary

How do we know if the world is spinning or stationary?  Do current images from space or the material in text books prove the Earth is spinning?  Only if you believe the source to be valid.  If, however, you are a natural scientist you would want to verify the veracity of the statements by repeating the experiments.

Using these two examples, let’s look at what is experienced when a person walks upon the earth.  If the earth is spinning it is comparable to the conveyor belt example except that the earth’s axis acts as the central wheel that “belt” of the earth’s surface or ground moves around.  It cannot be the train example since the floor of the train is not in motion.  We can see that additional energy is provided by the moving ground whereas no additional energy is provided to the person who is beside the belt.  We could then create an experiment where a person would leap against the direction of the belt (both on the belt and off).   We could place an object 5 feet from the person both on and off the belt and ask them to leap towards the object.  Since the additional energy of the belt is continually compelling the object forward, we would theorize that the total distance between the person and the object would be less than then person leaping beside the moving belt.

Why is leaping important in this experiment?  If the person simply walks on the belt, the forward momentum will be continually added to the individual since there is always contact with the belt.  By disengaging with the belt in a direction against the motion, we are subtracting (for a brief moment) the forward momentum of the belt and allowing the belt to move underneath.  It would be possible to land nearer or even surpass the object whereas the person leaping beside the belt would gain no advantage like that.   The question is how quickly does the forward momentum of the belt dissipate once the person leaps?  If the person can leap (towards the object like a long jump) with an acceleration of 1 m/s/s and can stay airborne for 2 seconds then a total distance of 2m can be achieved (with a final velocity of 2m/s).  Since the belt is moving at 1 m/s then in the first second the momentum has been overcome and the object has moved 1m closer.  In the 2nd second the object moves 2m closer if we add the motion of the belt and the acceleration of the person.  The total distance covered would be 3 meters.  In the case of the person beside the belt, they would only be able to cover 2m if they leaped with the same acceleration.  (you can work out the acceleration equation if you want)

We could increase the acceleration and distance by using something like a canon.  If we use the same arc and acceleration the ball should land at a greater distance from the canon if on a moving belt than if stationary.  If we assume that the acceleration of the canon is 10/m/s/s, the tennis ball can reach 80 m/s velocity and has a total airtime of 10 seconds, we can calculate the total distance travelled (640m).  If the velocity of the belt is 1 m/s then within 1 second the momentum of the belt has been overcome and we can add an additional 9 seconds of belt movement to the distance for a total of 649m.  If we then turn around and fire the canon in the opposite direction then the distance travelled by the canon is subtracted from the total distance of the ball (1m/s x 10 seconds = 10m).  This would mean that the total distance between the canon and the ball would be 630m.

If we take the above example and apply it to a spinning earth then a similar result must take place.  Taking the spin as the same as the conveyor belt one need only launch an object (a tennis ball thrower would suffice) to the west and then to the east.  If the objects land at similar distances from the thrower then we are not spinning.  However, if they land at different distances then we must be spinning.

A Discrepancy in the use of the Centripetal Force

This is a re-post of an article I wrote in reply to JimSmithInChiapas.  He has been kind enough to respond to some of my ideas on gravity, centrifugal and centripetal force.  Though he does not agree with my assessment of these forces, we continue to communicate in a respectful manner.  Below is a recent reply to a comment he had on centripetal forces.  Ultimately, I feel that the centripetal force has been fundamentally misapplied in spinning frames of reference.  It is my contention that a single frame of reference for spinning body requires that for any object to be apart of that frame, it must be attached directly to that spinning body.  This has massive (no pun intended) implications.  You can read my argument below:

Jim…thank you for your reply.  I initially wanted to clarify a slight misrepresentation in your article.  My article is called “Does Gravity Make Sense?” not “does gravity exist?”.  They are different concepts.  I’m questioning how gravity is being represented by mainstream science today not that objects have mass or that they fall from the sky.

In any event, the example that I used provided a single frame of reference with respect to a spinning disk.  I used a disk with a 10m radius that spins at 10 m/s with a person of 72kg on the outer rim.  The person would experience 720N/kg of centrifugal force.  I don’t think that is in question.  I then go onto saying that unless the person holds onto the disk (via an attached handle of some kind), they would be flung from the disk at 720N/kg.  Again, I don’t think that is in question either.  The centripetal force is an inward force that requires the handle and the person to be attached to the disk at all times.

A more illustrative example would be the Olympic hammer throw.  The athlete is holding onto a tether which is attached to heavy weight.  The spinning motion of the athlete creates the centrifugal force which flings the weight outwards.  The strength of the athlete keeps the hammer from leaving a circular orbit via a centripetal force.  The inward force (centripetal) is provided by the athlete which is ‘balance’ by the centrifugal force.  But all the spinning objects in that frame of reference are and must be attached together. 

There is no empirical evidence of a centripetal force acting on a body that is not attached to the spinning body.  How could it?

There are no real world examples of a free floating object being acted on by a centripetal force.  You can mathematically present a centripetal force acting on an object but it is missing the real world necessity of being attached to or apart of the spinning object.  The centripetal force is a function of a spinning object; it is not a separate force that can be applied to an object outside that frame of reference.  To be part of that frame of reference, an object would, by necessity, need to be attached to the spinning object. 

For example, the person in the disk example above, is not part of the frame of reference unless they hold onto the disk with sufficient force.  They are literally removed from the frame via the centrifugal force.

Therefore, I would conclude that any object that is rotating around the earth must, by necessity, be attached to the earth to be part of that frame of reference for any object not attached is subject to the centrifugal force and will be removed from the frame. 

If we take a real world example of a person of 72kg standing on the surface of the earth and if they are standing at the equator and if the earth is spinning at 1000miles/hr then they are subject to a centrifugal force of 2.2N/kg.  If gravity is acting on the person with 9.8N/kg then a total force of 7.6N/kg is present.  The centripetal force is not part of the frame of reference for that person as shown above.

As the mass of the object increases, the centrifugal force increases.  Therefore, an object greater than ~330kg should become “weightless” on the surface of the earth.  This is obviously not happening nor are people 22% lighter at the equator than they are at the north pole.  Additionally, the person would not feel heavier if they grabbed hold of something attached to the earth. 

What I’m showing is that there is a discrepancy between real world situations and the mathematical examples presented by modern science.  At this juncture I can only conclude that the centripetal force is being improperly applied across multiple spinning  frames of reference to account for the discrepancy and if that is the case then we cannot be in a spinning frame of reference (as shown above).

The Impossible Flight of the ISS

I was looking at some additional sites from NASA that try to explain the nature of gravity at certain altitudes.  https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/K-12/airplane/wteq.html

The final sentence of the explanation is “…But the high orbital speed, tangent to the surface of the earth, causes the fall towards the surface to be exactly matched by the curvature of the earth away from the shuttle. In essence, the shuttle is constantly falling all around the earth.”

As mentioned in my previous posts, the centripetal force only makes sense for something that is tethered to the spinning body  (If you feel that the centripetal force *does* have special powers, please provide a clear empirical example that can be tested). Neither the space shuttle nor the ISS are tethered to the earth unless we grant the centripetal magical grappling abilities (see hammer throw). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KnHUAc20WEU As well, for the shuttle to be constantly “falling” but not actually falling downwards, a constant acceleration would need to be applied (ie. rockets) plus a continual adjustment of direction or the shuttle would fly off into space (see what happens when the hammer is released).  Again, for apparent “weightlessness” in space, it would require objects to be falling at a rate of 9.8N/kg (or m/s/s) which would mean a constant counter-force of equal value would need to be applied or they would rapidly fall to earth.  So the “floating” objects and people in space would need to be in a free fall all the time.  This is obviously not the case since the ISS would have crashed to earth a long time ago.  In essence the ISS is just like a airplane at a higher altitude and would require constant thrust to stay in “orbit”.  If you turn off the engines of an airplane at 30,000 feet will it stay in “orbit” because “…the high orbital speed, tangent to the surface of the earth, causes the fall towards the surface to be exactly matched by the curvature of the earth away from the [airplane]? ”  I don’t think any scientist would want to be in that airplane at 30,000 feet.   It should be noted that the standard equation for centrifugal force for any object at the equator great than ~317kg would have a centrifugal force greater than gravity.  Unless the centripetal force is magically grappling those objects, they should all start floating and since objects like elephants weigh ~4000-7000kg, they should all be floating thousands of miles above the earth.

If we grant the ISS a value of 3217N/kg (centrifugal force) due to its orbit around the earth (@ 17,150 miles/h & 4200 miles & ~331,000kg) – what force was initially used to get it to that speed?), then an equivalent (but opposite direction) for it must be present via the centripetal force.  In order for a centripetal force to be present the object must be tethered to the earth.  However, to obtain 3217N/kg, this would require the object to be traveling at a faster rate than the earth’s rate of spin.  So an object that travels faster than the earth’s rate of spin *must* be under its own propulsion and not tethered to the earth.  Since the ISS is traveling at such a high rate of speed and is not tethered to the earth, then it *must* be under its own propulsion and heading.  This is plainly not the case.  If the centripetal and centrifugal forces are equal but opposite directions, then we are left with 9.8N/kg (the force of gravity) on all objects.

In conclusion, if the centripetal force only applies to objects that are tethered to a spinning object (ie. Earth) then objects above the earth’s surface must be constantly under their own propulsion (like an airplane) to stay above the earth’s surface.  In other words, the ISS should be falling out of the sky.

Forces – Where do they originate?

If you open any physics text book you will notice the use of the word force (as in F=ma).  However, what is being described in this equation is not a force at all but a relationship between two other measurements.  The variable ‘m’ or ‘mass’ is a measurement which requires its own force and ‘a’ or ‘acceleration’ which also requires it’s own force.  The problem is in trying to define mass and acceleration.

These definitions refer back to each other in a self-referential manner.  For example, one definition (there are many) says:

In physics, the property of matter that measures its resistance to acceleration.

So mass, in this instance, refers to acceleration and acceleration is defined as:

Mechanics. the time rate of change of velocity with respect to magnitude or direction; the derivative of velocity with respect to time.
Now acceleration refers to velocity and velocity is defined as:
Mechanics. the time rate of change of position of a body in a specified direction.
Now if velocity is defined as above, then in no way has any force been defined or measured since we are simply left with ‘time’ which is also a relationship between what was before and what is now.  No forces have been directly measured.  If we then look at the concept of ‘gravity‘, we are left working with the mass of two object in relation to radius of those objects.  Again, there is no inherent force in the ‘radius’ of an object and as we’ve seen above, the mass of an object has no inherent force.  Therefore, ‘gravity‘ cannot be a force but only a definition of a relationship between objects.
So the question that arises is: What is a force and where does it originate?
Forces have their origin in the hidden (occult) or unmeasured worlds.  As previously written, hidden forces are real and have a direct, meaningful and potent affect on our lives.  As Goethe’s Faust says:
In thy Naught I hope to find the All.
This brings us to the most difficult of places.  We are crossing over into the threshold of the ‘naught’ and most are terrified to venture there.  We have ask ourselves why it is so uncomfortable to look into a region that is our true origin?  In most cases we have been conditioned to seek the ‘hidden’ through authoritative paths (ie. religion) or to dismiss it completely (ie. scientism).   But why have we been ‘directed’ into these paths?  That is an even more complicate answer.